Meteorological situation for June 2019
The meteorological situation in June 2019 was characterized by stable high-pressure systems over central and eastern Europe and low-pressure systems westward as well as upper-level low pressure systems at the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean regions. Precipitation totals were below the long term means in large parts of the EFAS domain. The monthly mean temperature was above the long-term means in the middle and south, below in the west and east of the EFAS domain.
At the beginning of June, most parts of the EFAS domain were influenced by high-pressure systems, except for northern Scandinavia. An upper-level low-pressure system was located over the central Mediterranean region and caused heavy precipitation and hail in southern Italy. It moved to the Balkans and caused also there heavy precipitation with floods and landslides. Meanwhile, the low-pressure system from northern Scandinavia moved north-eastward and initiated the formation of a new low-pressure system over Russia while dissipating. Another low-pressure system moved from the Atlantic Ocean via Great Britain and Ireland to the region between Iceland and Norway. A secondary low-pressure system developed over Great Britain and moved to the North Sea, where the signature in the lower levels weakened but was stable in the upper levels, which moved southwards to France and then back northwards initiating the formation of a low-pressure system at the surface again which resulted in precipitation over France and Great Britain mainly. This low-pressure system then moved out over the sea between Great Britain, Iceland and Norway.
In the other parts of the EFAS domain no large pressure gradients occurred, but these conditions allowed for the formation of intense convective precipitation over central and south-eastern Europe. A small low-pressure system moved from Newfoundland across the Azores to the Bay of Biscay and joined the above mentioned low-pressure system. Another low-pressure system over the Kara Sea and secondary low-pressure systems over Scandinavia brought precipitation to Scandinavia and northern Russia. In the last days of June, one more low-pressure system over the eastern Atlantic Ocean caused a southerly flow bringing warm air masses from northern Africa to central and western Europe. High pressure eastward and to the north of this system inhibited cloud formation processes giving good conditions for the large-scale heat wave to come. A new temperature record was set in France while many other stations in several European countries set new records for the highest temperature in June.
In June 2019, the highest monthly precipitation totals were observed in the Norwegian mountains, western Alps, Great Britain, Ireland and the Balkans mainly caused by convective events (Figure 1). Nearly no precipitation fell in some parts of the Iberian Peninsula, France, Italy and Greece but also in the south and east of the Mediterranean Sea. Less than normal precipitation fell in large parts of the EFAS domain (Figure 2). More than normal precipitation fell in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, parts of France, Great Britain, Ireland, western and northern Scandinavia, the Balkans and parts of Turkey. Also some spots in other regions received more than normal precipitation amounts. The large relative anomalies in the south and southeast of the EFAS domain originated from small precipitation amounts in a typically precipitation free season.
The monthly mean air temperature ranged from -4.4°C to 38°C with the highest temperatures in the southern and eastern parts and lowest temperatures in the northern and mountainous parts of the EFAS domain (Figure 3). Temperature anomalies ranged from -5.8°C to 10.4°C with abnormally low temperatures in western part of the Northwest Africa, western Iberian Peninsula, Great Britain, northern Iceland, northern Scandinavia and the eastern parts of Russia (Figure 4). Nearly in all other regions temperatures rose above normal.