Meteorological situation for February 2019
by EFAS Meteorological Data Collection Centre
The meteorological situation in February 2019 was characterized by an intense activity of low-pressure systems in the beginning of the month and in the northern parts of the domain as well as blocking “high-pressure” systems in Central Europe in the second half of the month. In the beginning of the month, two low-pressure systems moved from the Atlantic Ocean eastwards, the first one on a southerly track over the Mediterranean Region causing high daily precipitation totals, e.g. in Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina or Greece, whereas the second one took a northerly track over the North Sea and Baltic Sea and caused high wind speeds over Great Britain and Ireland, southern Scandinavia and central Europe.
By the middle of February, a high-pressure system moved from northern Africa to central Europe and stayed there till the end of the month. This high-pressure system forced low-pressure systems from the Atlantic Ocean on a northern track bringing high wind speeds to northern Scandinavia and Russia and allowed a southward track of the low-pressure systems east of the high-pressure. This large-scale synoptic situation forced an intense flow of warm air from the Iberian Peninsula to the Britain and Ireland, Scandinavia and Central Europe causing new temperature records for February at some stations with more than 20°C in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany (at least for Germany the absolute national record was observed at another station with 23.1°C in 1900 and not broken). Cold air moved at the eastern edge of the high-pressure system southward into the central and eastern Mediterranean region forcing the development of small low-pressure systems and convective precipitation. High daily precipitation totals, partly above 100 mm, were reported from Libya, Greece, Cyprus and Crete as well as snowfall from some islands in the Aegean Sea. Intense precipitation was also reported in Israel and Jordan on the last days of February.
Precipitation amounts were up to 520 mm in February 2019 (Figure 1). The highest precipitation totals were observed at the border between Italy and Slovenia, the northern part of the Apennine Mountains, Crete, the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea in Jordan, Lebanon and Israel, the Libyan coast as well as in Scotland and Norway. However, in some of these regions the precipitation totals in February are below the long term mean like in Scotland and southern Norway (Figure 2). Most parts of the EFAS domain received less than normal precipitation amounts, some regions in Spain, Greece and northern Africa no or almost no precipitation.
The monthly mean temperature ranges from -25°C to 21°C with the highest temperatures in the southeastern and the lowest temperatures in the northeastern parts of the EFAS domain (Figure 3). Temperature anomalies range from -5°C to 9°C, where most regions had above normal temperatures (Figure 4). Below normal temperatures were found in northern Scandinavia, Iceland, southern Portugal, Sicily, large parts of northern Africa, Crete, eastern Turkey and eastern Russia.